Krishna Hachhethu is a well known Professor of Political Science at Tribhuvan University, Nepal. He is author of 18 books, including Nation-Building and Federalism in Nepal (2023), Party Building in Nepal (2nd Ed, 2021), Trajectory of Democracy in Nepal (2015), State Building in Nepal (2009), Nepal in Transition (2008) and has credit of publishing more than 50 research articles in books and journals published in Nepal and abroad.

Professor Hachhethu was a member of the High-Level State Restructuring Recommendation Commission of Nepal formed by the government of Nepal that came up with a proposl for a federal structure in the last days of the first Constituent Assembly in 2012. He is no mere academic observer, but he is personally acquainted with all the major figure of contemporary Nepali politics. Also, he is widely considered as the most thoughtful Nepali scholar engaged in public issues. 

Professor Hachhethu is country coordinator for the South Asia Democracy Study Network. In 2005, he was a visiting scholar at the University of Oxford. 

“Today’s Research, Tomorrow’s Policy”

Talks and Interviews


Books Published

  1. Nation-Building and Federalism in Nepal. Delhi: OUP, 2023.
  2. Party Building in Nepal: Organization, Leadership and People, A Comparative Study of the Nepali Congress and the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist), Kathmandu: Mandala Book Point, 2021 (2nd edition) (first published in 2002).
  3. Trajectory of Democracy in Nepal. New Delhi: Adroit, 2015.
  4. Citizen Survey 2013: Nepal in Transition. Stockholm: International IDEA, 2013.
  5. State Building in Nepal: Creating a Functional State. Kathmandu: ESP, 2009.
  6. Nepal in Transition: A Study on the State of Democracy. Stockholm: IDEA, 2008.
  7. State of Democracy in Nepal: Survey Report. Kathmandu: SDSAN/International IDEA, 2004.



  1. Co-author (with Subash Nepali and Subha Ghale). Federal Nepal: the Provinces. Kathmandu: Governance Facility, 2018.
  2. Co-author (with Sandeep Shastri et al). State of Democracy in South Asia (Report II). Bangalore: Jain University Press. 2017.
  3. Co-editor (with Lokraj Baral). South Asia: Nation Building and Federalism. New Delhi: Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. 2014.
  4. Co-editor (with David Gellner). Local Democracy in South Asia: Microprocesses of Democratisation in Nepal and its Neighbours. New Delhi: Sage. 2008.
  5. Co-author (with Peter. R deSouza, Suhas Palshikar, Yogendra Yadav et al). State of Democracy in South Asia. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2008.
  6. Co-author (with Lok Raj Baral et al). Nepal: Local Leadership and Governance. New Delhi: Adroit, 2003.
  7. Co-author (with Indira Shrestha). Women and Governance: Re-imagining the State from Gender Perspective (Nepal Chapter). Kathmandu: Shtrii Shakti, 2002.
  8. Co-author (with Partha Chatterji et al). Social Science Research Capacity in South Asia. New York: Social Science Research Council, 2002.
  9. Co-author (with Lok Raj Baral and Hari Sharma). Leadership in Nepal. New Delhi: Adroit Publishers, 2001.


Academic Articles Published in Books and Journals

  1. “Elite Circulation and Inclusion in Local Elections 2022”, FES policy paper series, Prospect for Democratic Consolidation, 2023.
  2. “Role of Political Parties in the Democratizing Process in Nepal” in Chandra Dev Bhatta. Ed. Rooting Nepal’s Democratic Spirit. Kathmandu: FES. 2022.
  3. “Gender and Governance in Nepal” in Durga P. Chhetri. Ed. Gender, Power and Democracy in South Asia. New Delhi: Mital Publications, 2019.
  4. “Democracy and Ethnicity in Nepal”, Institute of South Asian Studies Working Paper 257, April 2017.
  5. “Legislating Inclusion: Post-war Constitution Making in Nepal” in Deepak Thapa and Alexander Ramsbotham. Eds. Two Steps Forward, One Step back: The Nepal Peace Process (A special issue of Accord-26). March 2017.
  6. “New Constitution and Nation Building in Nepal” in Pankaj Adhkiri, Subhash Ghimire and Vidyandhar Malik. Eds. Nepal Transition to Peace: A Decade of Comprehensive Peace Accord (2006-2016). Kathmandu: Nepal Transition to Peace, 2016.
  7. “Nepal: Inclusive Democracy and Political Parties”, Studies in Nepali History and Society, Vol.19, No.2, December 2014.
  8. “Balancing Identity and Viability: Restructuring Nepal into a Viable Federal State” in Budhi Karki and Rohan Edrisinha. Eds. The Federalism Debate in Nepal. Kathmandu: SPCBN/UNDP/Nepal, 2014.
  9. “Nepal: Study of Political Inclusion and Research Methods” in Om Gurung, Mukta S. Tamang and Mark Turin. Eds. Perspectives on Social Inclusion and Exclusion in Nepal. Kathmandu: Central Department of Sociology/Anthropology, 2014.
  10. “Nepal: Rise of Ethnicity and the Agenda of Inclusive Democracy” in Kousar J. Azam. Ed. Conflicting Ethnicity: Locating the Local in the Global. New Delhi: Manohar, 2013.
  11. “Tamuwan in the Gurung Imagination” in Joelle Smadja. Ed. Territorial Changes and Territorial Restructuring in the Himalayas. New Delhi: Adroit, 2013.  
  12. “Nepal: From an Exclusionary to Inclusive State”, South Asian Journal, No. 37, July – September 2012.
  13. “Choice of Form of Government for New Nepal: Comparative Advantage and Disadvantage of Parliamentary, Presidential, and Semi-Presidential System” in Lok Raj Baral. Ed. Constitutional Government and Democracy in South Asia. Kathmandu: NCCS, 2011.
  14. “Role of European Union on Democracy Building in Nepal” in International IDEA. The European Union’s Role in Democracy Building in South Asia, Stockholm, 2009.
  1. “Social Exclusion and Nepali Muslim: A Case Study of Banke District”, Contributions to Nepalese Studies, Vol. 36, 2009.
  2. “The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist): Transformation from an Insurgency Group to a Competitive Party”, European Bulletin of Himalayan Research, 33-34, Autumn 2008 and Spring 2009.
  3. “Nepal: Nepali Society and Politics: Conflict and Change” in Takashi Inoguchi. ed. Human Beliefs and Values in Incredible Asia. Tokyo: Akashi Shoten, 2008.
  4. “The Second Transformation of Nepali Political Parties” in Lok Raj Baral. ed. Nepal: New Frontiers of Restructuring of the State. New Delhi: Adroit, 2008.
  5. “Political Parties” in Yash Ghai and Jill Cottrell. eds. Creating the New Constitution: A Guide for Nepali Citizens. Stockholm: International IDEA, 2008.
  6.  “Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: An Overview” in P.V. Ramana. ed. The Naxal Challenge: Causes, Linkages, and Policy Options. New Delhi: Pearson Longman, 2008.
  7. “Social Change and Leadership: A Case Study of Bhaktapur City” in Hiroshi Ishi, David N. Gellner and Katsuo Nawa. eds. Political and Social Transformations in North India and Nepal. New Delhi: Manohar, 2008.
  8. “Local Democracy and Political Parties in Nepal: A Case Study of Dhanusha District” in David Gellner and Krishna Hachhethu. Eds. Democracy in South Asia: Microprocesses of Democratisation in Nepal and its Neighbours. New Delhi: Sage. 2008.
  9. “Political Leadership in Nepal: Image, environment and Composition”, Contributions to Nepalese Studies, Vo. 34, No. 1, January 2007.
  10. “Legitimacy Crisis of Nepali Monarchy”, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XLII, No.20, May 19-25, 2007.
  11. “Civil Society and Political Participation” in Lok Raj Baral. ed. Nepal: Quest for Participatory Democracy, New Delhi: Adroit, 2006.
  12. Political Parties of Nepal (Baha Occasional Papers 1), Kathmandu, Social Science Baha, 2006.
  13. “Monarchy and Insurgency” in Lok Raj Baral. ed. Nepal: Facets of Maoist Insurgency, New Delhi: Adroit, 2006.
  14. “Political Parties and Elections” in Lok Raj Baral. ed. Election and Governance in Nepal, New Delhi: Manohar, 2005.
  15. “What the People Feel”, Seminar, No. 548, April 2005.
  16. “The Maoist Uprising in Nepal” in Farooq Sobhan. ed. Strengthening Cooperation and Security in South Asia Post 9/11. Dhaka: The University Press Limited, 2004.
  17. “Parties in Parliament: The Role of Prime Minister” in Lok Raj Baral. Ed., Nepal: Political Parties and Parliament, New Delhi: Adroit, 2004.
  18. “Municipality Leadership and Governance: A case Study of Bhaktapur” in Lok Raj Baral et al. Nepal: Leadership and Governance, New Delhi: Adroit, 2004.
  19. “The Nepali State and the Maoist Insurgency, 1996-2001″ in Michael Hutt, ed., Himalayan ‘People’s War’: Nepal’s Maoist Rebellion, London: Hurst and Company, 2004.
  20. “Political Science in Nepal”, Studies in Nepali History and Society, Vol.9, No.2, 2004.
  21. “Nepal: Confronting Hindu Identity”, South Asian Journal, No.2, October-December 2003.
  22. “Democracy and Nationalism: Interface between State and Ethnicity in Nepal”, Contributions to Nepalese Studies, V.30, No. 2, July 2003.
  23. “Nepal: Party Manifesto and Election”, Nepali Journal of Contemporary Studies, Vol.III, No. 1, March 2003.
  24. “Political Parties and the State” in David N. Gellner, ed., Resistance and the State: Nepalese Experience, New Delhi: Social Science Press, 2003.
  25. “Social Science Research in Nepal” in Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XXXVII, No 35, August31-September 6, 2002.
  26. “Social Sciences in Nepal”, Contributions to Nepalese Studies, Vo. 29, No. 1, January 2002.
  27. “Nepali Politics: Political Parties, Political Crisis and Problem of Governance” in Dhruba Kumar, ed., Domestic Conflicts and Crisis of Governability in Nepal, Kathmandu: Centre for Nepal and Asian Studies, 2000.
  28. “Nepal’s India Policy under Communist Government in Nepal”, Contributions to Nepalese Studies, Vol. 26, No. 2, July 1999.
  29. “Nepal in 1996: Experiment with Coalition Government”, Asian Survey, Vol. XXXVII, No. 2, February1997.
  30. “Authority Building in Nepal: A Study of PM G.P. Koirala” in Dhruba Kumar, ed., State, Leadership and Politics in Nepal, Kathmandu: Centre for Nepal and Asian Studies, 1995.
  31. “Transition to Democracy in Nepal: Negotiation behind Constitution Making, 1990”, Contributions to Nepalese Studies, 21, No.1, CNAS/TU, 1994.
  32. “Nepali Congress: Issues of Inner-Party Democracy” in Lok Raj Baral, ed., South Asia: Democracy and Road Ahead, Kathmandu: Political Science Association of Nepal, 1992.
  33. “Political System and Political Forces in Nepal”, South Asian Studies, Vol.27, No.2, University of Rajsthan, Jaipur, India, 1992.
  1. “Mass Movement 1990”, Contributions to Nepalese Studies, Vol.17, No.2, CNAS, 1990.
  2. “Bhutan in 1988: Cautious Modernization” in Ananda Aditya, ed., CNAS Year Review 1988, Kathmandu: Centre for Nepal and Asian Studies, 1988.



  1. (with Tula Narayan Shah and Ram Kumar Kamat). Politics of Representation in Nepal (occasional paper). Kathmandu: NEMAF, 2015.
  2. (with David Gellner). “Nepal: Trajectories of Democracy and Restructuring of the State” in Paul R. Brass. ed. Routledge Handbook of South Asian Politics. London: Routledge, 2010.
  3. (with Lal Babu Yadav and Deepa Gurung), “Nepal: State and Ethnicity” in Kristian Stokke and Mohan Das Manandhar, ed., State and Society: Social Exclusion and Inclusion in Nepal, Kathmandu: Mandala Book Point, 2010.
  4. (with David Gellner). “Introduction” in David Gellner and Krishna Hachhethu. eds.. Democracy in South Asia: Microprocesses of Democratisation in Nepal and its Neighbours. New Delhi: Sage. 2008.
  5. (with Dhruba Kumar), “Political System” in ESP, Pro-Poor Governance Assessment: Nepal, Kathmandu: Enabling State Programme, 2001.
  6. (with Bhim Rawal) “Nepali Perspectives of Recent Indo-Sri Lanka Relations” in M.D. Dharmadasani, ed., Sri Lanka: an Island in Crisis, Banaras: Shalimar Publication, 1988.



Books (Editor, Co-author/editor)

  1. Co-Editor (with Lok Raj Baral). Federal Nepal and Its Attributes (in Nepali). Kathmandu: NCCS, 2013.
  2. (Editor.) Nepali State: Its New Structure and Character (in Nepali). Kathmandu: NCCS, 2011


  1. “A Review on Structure and Role of Provinces in Federal Nepal” in Kalanidhi Devkota. Ed. Federal Nepal in Practice: Review and Roadmap. Kathmandu: Nepal Municipality Association, 2022.
  1. “Federal Debate in Nepal”, Jhilko, 5:1, January-March 2014.
  2. “Regional Nationalism and Madhesh based Political Parties”, Madhesh Adhyan -3, Kathmandu: Nepal Madhesh Foundation, 2013.
  1. “Restructuring Nepali State and Madhesh”, Madhesh Adhyan -1, Kathmandu: Nepal Madhesh Foundation, 2013.
  1. “Social Harmony and Federalism in Nepal” in Rajendra Maharjan, ed., Dimensions of Social Harmony, Kathmandu: Nepal Madhesh Foundation, 2013.
  1. “Bases of Constituting Federal Units: World Experiences and Nepali Context”, in Lok Raj Baral and Krishna Hachhethu, eds., Federal Nepal and Its Attributes, Kathmandu: NCCS, 2013.
  1. “Political Change and Constitution Making” in Krishna Hachhethu, ed., Nepali State: Its New Structure and Character, Kathmandu: NCCS, 2011.
  1. “Federal Nepal: Nature and Structure” in Krishna Khanal, ed., Constitution Making and State Restructuring”, Kathmandu: NCCS, 2010.
  1. “Parliamentary Political Parties” in Meri Deshan and Pratyoush Onta, eds., Social Sciences Discoursed in Nepal, Kathmandu: Social Science Baha, 2004. 

Book Reviews

  1. Sudhindra Sharma and Pawan Kumar Sen, 1999 General Election Opinion Poll: How Voters Assess Politics, Parties and Politicians, Himal Association, 1999. “Mat Sarbhechen bare Ghotalinda” (Thinking on Opinion Poll), Himal, May 1999.
  2. William Raeper and Martin Hoftun, Spring Awakening: An Account of the 1990 Revolution in Nepal, Delhi: Viking, 1992. “A Sweeping Review of the People’s Movement”, Himal, March/April 1993.
  3. Several articles on topical issues of Nepali politics and SAARC, Published in Newspapers and Magazines

Guest Lecture

  1. “Nation Building, Ethnic Conflict and Federal Design in Nepal” at CMI, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, 12 September 2017.
  2. “Tamuwan in Imagination of Gurungs” at Centre national DeLa Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Paris, France on 18 December 2007.
  3. “Nepal: Trajectories of Democracy and Problems of Democratic Consolidation in Comparative Perspective of South Asia” in Wiltan Park, UK on 23 October 2007.
  4. “Derailment of Democracy in Nepal” at St. Hills Hotel, Tokyo, Japan, 25 February 2006, organized by Japanese Academics working on Nepal
  5. “Democracy Derailed: What Next for Nepal” at School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), London, 9 June 2005, organized by British-Nepal Academic Council
  6. “Current Discourse on Monarchy in Nepal” at Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2 March 2004.
  7. “Political Leaders in Nepal” at Centre national DeLa Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Paris, France on September 12, 2000.
  8. “Nepali Politics: Conflict between Tradition and Modernization” at American University, Washington D.C, August 30, 1995.
  9. “Transitional Politics of Nepal” at South Asian Studies Centre, University of Rajsthan, Jaipur, India March 12, 1994.
  10. “Political Parties of Nepal” at Kathmandu College of Management, Kathmandu University, April 5, 1999.

Other Academic Activities

  1. Member, State Restructuring High Level Recommendation Commission (November 2011 – February 2012)
  2. Facilitator to SPCBN/UNDP/Nepal’s Federalism Dialogue (2010-2011)
  3. Facilitator to International IDEA’s Dialogues (intra-party, inter-party, stakeholder and citizen dialogues) on Content and Contentious Issues of New Constitution) (2008-2012)
  4. Visiting Scholar, Wolfson College, University of Oxford, UK (May-July 2005).
  5. Nepal Country Coordinator of a Regional Project on “State of Democracy in South Asia”
  6. Former Faculty Member of Immersion Course on Contemporary Social Issues.
  7. Former Faculty Member, Kathmandu College of Management
  8. Editor, Nepali Journal of Contemporary Studies
  9. UN Observer for General Elections in South Africa, 1994.
  10. International Observer for Provincial Elections in Sri Lanka, 1993.
  11. Member of Political Science Association of Nepal (POLSAN).
  12. Member of Nepal Opinion Survey Center (NOSC).
  13. Member of Transparency International, Nepal. Member, Nepal Centre for Contemporary Studies (NCCS)